People make decisions based on segmenting the information they are presented with. You’re probably familiar with this process, as it’s one you perform routinely; you don’t think of yourself as a person who considers many types of music, only “pop music,” “rap music,” or “acoustic rock.”
To make sense of the world, your brain places new information into a pre-existing category and then compares it to what is already there. This is where perceptual sets come into play. Perceptual sets are essential to understand how they affect people’s thinking and behavior and have their roots in mind. It is a topic that has been well-studied and documented in psychology.
To comprehend what we hear or see and how we interact with objects in our environment, it is inevitable to understand how our perceptual system works as a whole. This article explores various facets of our perceptual system: from the role to the impact of a perceptual set on perception.
What Is a Perceptual Set?
The perceptual set is the mind’s active preparation to perceive stimuli and ignore others. It is a phenomenon of perception in which mental conceptions, expectations, and motives bias the sensory stimuli that enter our consciousness and are selectively perceived.
In other words, it is a person’s predisposition to respond in a certain way to a stimulus that is presented and how individuals perceive, organize, and interpret information. This predisposition determines how one’s senses and response mechanisms react to stimuli. Thus, a perceptual set refers to a preconceived internal state of mind that influences the reception or interpretation of particular stimuli.
Examples of Perceptual Set
One of the significant effects of perceptual sets is that people tend to see only a small number of things at once. Their unconscious mind makes them notice any aspect of their environment that matches what they already think, while the rest is processed very shallowly.
For example, if you’ve ever woken up to the sound of your neighbor hammering a nail into their house, you’ll probably hear the pounding even when it stops and notice it for hours after. This is because the noise has primed your auditory perceptual set.
On the other hand, if you’re used to living in a neighborhood with a lot of construction, you might ignore that same noise until it stops. Or maybe you’ll discard the sound altogether, especially if you’re working on something and don’t need to hear external sounds right now.
Perceptual sets may be based on direct experience or indirect experience from media such as television, books, or movies. A teenage girl with an older brother may view adult men in terms of her brother’s behavior with them; she may make assumptions about men based on what she has seen him do to others.
Similarly, a man who has always heard war stories from his father may be likelier to believe that other countries are inherently hostile than those whose family members have not shared their experiences with him. That does not mean he is right about their attitudes; it simply means his beliefs about those attitudes.
How Does the Perceptual Set Work?
The first step in understanding how perception works is understanding what makes up our perceptual set. We see the world through a lens of expectations, beliefs, and experiences. The framework helps us make sense of the world. It shapes how we see and hear people, places, things, and events.
Taken together, these elements comprise a person’s model of the world. And no two models are alike; each one is unique to an individual. Each person has a different circle of friends, political beliefs, likes and dislikes, and experiences in life. These factors contribute to how a person perceives others around them.
Often, how we perceive things will predict what type of behavior comes next and help in coming up with accurate conclusions. When we meet new situations, we apply the same perceptual set that we have always used or create a new and accurate one.
What Are the Factors That Contribute to Our Perceptual Set?
The perceptual set is a result of a variety of factors and influences, including:
Our culture may influence our perceptions of different situations, allowing us to predict what we will experience based on our previous experiences with similar situations.
Our motivation for wanting or expecting something to occur can influence our perception of what is happening in a given situation.
For example, suppose a spectator at a sporting event strongly desires that their team win. In that case, they may interpret the players’ actions as indicating that the team will win, even though this perception does not necessarily reflect reality.
Schemas and expectations
Schemas are mental structures that help people organize their thoughts and experiences. Schemas can help people interpret novel situations by comparing the unknown situation to something they are already familiar with.
One’s schemas and expectations can affect their interpretation of new information by influencing how one processes it after receiving it.
Our emotions affect perception in all aspects of our lives, from how we see ourselves and others to how we make decisions and form judgments. Emotions are real things that make a real difference in how we experience the world around us.
For example, you might think your coffee is too hot if you’re tired. You might not be able to appreciate its taste as much or be able to feel the burn of the liquid going down your throat as well. This is because your emotions can make it harder for your brain to process information correctly.
The extent to which this happens depends on the kind of emotion you’re experiencing. Fear, for example, sharpens a person’s senses and makes them more aware of everything around them. Anger causes people’s senses to narrow and focus exclusively on the source of their irritation or anger — they don’t notice much else going on around them while they’re angry.
We see and perceive the world, not as it is but as we are. Our interpretations of the world and our surroundings, of events and people, rely on our past experiences and constructs of the world. These past experiences will profoundly impact how we perceive certain things or situations. How we perceive events and situations is also determined by current moods, feelings, and emotions.
Understanding the precise mechanism of perception and its ensuing processes will help us unify various disciplines. Perception is a field of study that is always booming with discoveries, and there will always be ample room for more; however, it is also one that can easily drift away from its fundamental principles and fall victim to unfounded claims. We must remember to return to the core for this field to prosper as it should.
- Vernon, M. D. (1955). The functions of schemata in perceiving. Psychological Review, 62(3), 180–192. The functions of schemata in perceiving. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0042425
- Biggs, A. T., Adamo, S. H., Dowd, E. W., & Mitroff, S. R. (2015). Examining perceptual and conceptual set biases in multiple-target visual search. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77(3), 844–855. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-014-0822-0